By:  David Hall

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Israel Photos III

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Before Noah ... Early Flood legends

Was Mt. Sinai a Volcano?

End of the World Predictions (NT)

        Hazor - March 1999

Hazor - April 2005

Israeli archaeologist Yigael Yadin dug up Hazor (1955-58).  He discovered the six chamber gate complex and dated it to the time of Solomon.  The six chambers were behind two square buttresses at the entrance to the city. 

This discovery was of interest for it was written in the Bible that Solomon had building projects in Hazor, Megiddo, and Gezer.
1Kings 9:15  "And this is the reason of the levy which king Solomon raised, to build the house of Jehovah (YHWH), and his own house, and Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, and Megiddo, and Gezer."
Yigael Yadin had dated one gate structure at Megiddo to the time of Solomon.  He also wrote about one of the gates at Gezer as being from the time of Solomon  (IEJ Reader Vol I, "Solomon's City Wall and Gate at Gezer,", Y. Yadin, 1981).  Yigael recorded the orientation of the three gates (Hazor, Megiddo, and Gezer) were from the same plan built to slightly different specifications as if "planned by the same royal architect." 

Recent excavations and study of Megiddo used C-14 dating to date the triple gate at Megiddo to after the time of Solomon.  The stories of Solomon were likely folk lore as it is difficult to accept any ruler of that day had 700 wives and 300 concubines (1 Kings 11:13).  The story of David and Goliath is doubtful as Goliath was listed as being over nine feet tall (1 Samuel 17:4).  Some scholars have found likely anachronisms in the stories of David and Solomon.  During the 8th century BC there was an Assyrian  account in writing about King Tiglath-Pileser III collecting tribute from Hiram of Tyre, Menaham of Samaria, and Queen Zebibe of Arabia (Queen of the South?).  The 8th century BC Judean king Jotham lived during this era and had a seaport on the Red Sea.  Solomon may have lived in the 10th century BC.  There was a stone coffin found at Byblos on the Med. coast of Ahiram.  Albright dated this to the 10th century, others dated it earlier.  The coffin of Ahiram was used as evidence for a relationship between Solomon and Hiram.  Earlier theories that Solomon had a seaport on the Red Sea could not be substantiated.  Stories about Philistines living in their cities along the southern coastal plain of Israel have been proven by archaeologists and historians.  They used a decorated Eastern Med. pottery similar to that used in the Greek Isles and Crete during those days.  This potter was unique and unlike the plain pottery being used in the hill country of Israel during the eleventh and tenth centuries B.C.  

Solomon was likely a ruler of Israel whose works were exaggerated after much time elapsed and records were missing.

See also: 

The Bible and Radiocarbon Dating, Levy and Higham, Equinox, 2005

Nelson Glueck's 1938-1940 Excavations at Tell El-Kheleifeh A Reappraisal, Gary D. Pratico, ASOR. 1993

David and Solomon, In Search of the Bible's Sacred Kings and the Roots of the Western Tradition, Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, Free Press/Simon and Schuster, 2006

Megiddo III, The 1992-1996 Seasons, Israel Finkelstein, David Ussishkin, and Baruch Halpern (Editors), Tel Aviv, 2000

Megiddo IV, The 1998-2000 Seasons, Israel Finkelstein, David Ussishkin, and Baruch Halpern (Editors), Tel Aviv, 2006